CS655 12 cm Soil Water Content Reflectometer
Innovative
More accurate in soils with high bulk EC
weather applications water applications energy applications gas flux and turbulence applications infrastructure applications soil applications

Overview

The CS655 is a multiparameter smart sensor that uses innovative techniques to monitor soil volumetric-water content, bulk electrical conductivity, and temperature. It outputs an SDI-12 signal that many of our dataloggers can measure. It has shorter rods than the CS650, for use in problem soils.


Read More

Benefits and Features

  • Larger sample volume reduces error
  • Measurement corrected for effects of soil texture and electrical conductivity
  • Estimates soil-water content for a wide range of mineral soils
  • Versatile sensor—measures dielectric permittivity, bulk electrical conductivity (EC), and soil temperature

Images


Detailed Description

The CS655 consists of two 12-cm-long stainless steel rods connected to a printed circuit board. The circuit board is encapsulated in epoxy and a shielded cable is attached to the circuit board for data logger connection.

The CS655 measures propagation time, signal attenuation, and temperature. Dielectric permittivity, volumetric water content, and bulk electrical conductivity are then derived from these raw values.

Measured signal attenuation is used to correct for the loss effect on reflection detection and thus propagation time measurement. This loss-effect correction allows accurate water content measurements in soils with bulk EC ≤8 dS m-1 without performing a soil-specific calibration.

Soil bulk electrical conductivity is also calculated from the attenuation measurement. A thermistor in thermal contact with a probe rod near the epoxy surface measures temperature. Horizontal installation of the sensor provides accurate soil temperature measurement at the same depth as the water content. Temperature measurement in other orientations will be that of the region near the rod entrance into the epoxy body.


Specifications

Measurements Made Soil electrical conductivity (EC), relative dielectric permittivity, volumetric water content (VWC), soil temperature
Required Equipment Measurement system
Soil Suitability Short rods are easy to install in hard soil. Suitable for soils with higher electrical conductivity.
Rods Not replaceable
Sensors Not interchangeable
Sensing Volume 3600 cm3 (~7.5 cm radius around each probe rod and 4.5 cm beyond the end of the rods)
Electromagnetic CE compliant (Meets EN61326 requirements for protection against electrostatic discharge and surge.)
Operating Temperature Range -50° to +70°C
Sensor Output SDI-12; serial RS-232
Warm-up Time 3 s
Measurement Time 3 ms to measure; 600 ms to complete SDI-12 command
Power Supply Requirements 6 to 18 Vdc (Must be able to supply 45 mA @ 12 Vdc.)
Maximum Cable Length 610 m (2000 ft) combined length for up to 25 sensors connected to the same data logger control port
Rod Spacing 32 mm (1.3 in.)
Ingress Protection Rating IP68
Rod Diameter 3.2 mm (0.13 in.)
Rod Length 120 mm (4.7 in.)
Probe Head Dimensions 85 x 63 x 18 mm (3.3 x 2.5 x 0.7 in.)
Cable Weight 35 g per m (0.38 oz per ft)
Probe Weight 240 g (8.5 oz) without cable

Current Drain

Active (3 ms)
  • 45 mA typical (@ 12 Vdc)
  • 80 mA (@ 6 Vdc)
  • 35 mA (@ 18 Vdc)
Quiescent 135 µA typical (@ 12 Vdc)

Electrical Conductivity

Range for Solution EC 0 to 8 dS/m
Range for Bulk EC 0 to 8 dS/m
Accuracy ±(5% of reading + 0.05 dS/m)
Precision 0.5% of BEC

Relative Dielectric Permittivity

Range 1 to 81
Accuracy
  • ±(3% of reading + 0.8) from 1 to 40 for solution EC ≤ 8 dS/m
  • ±2 (from 40 to 81 for solution EC ≤ 2.8 dS/m)
Precision < 0.02

Volumetric Water Content

Range 0 to 100% (with M4 command)
Water Content Accuracy
  • ±1% (with soil-specific calibration) where solution EC < 3 dS/m
  • ±3% (typical with factory VWC model) where solution EC < 10 dS/m
Precision < 0.05%

Soil Temperature

Range -50° to +70°C
Resolution 0.001°C
Accuracy
  • ±0.1°C (for typical soil temperatures [0 to 40°C] when probe body is buried in soil)
  • ±0.5°C (for full temperature range)
Precision ±0.02°C

Compatibility

Please note: The following shows notable compatibility information. It is not a comprehensive list of all compatible products.

Dataloggers

Product Compatible Note
21X (retired)
CR10 (retired)
CR1000 (retired)
CR1000X
CR10X (retired)
CR200X (retired)
CR211X (retired)
CR216X (retired)
CR23X (retired)
CR300
CR3000 (retired)
CR310
CR350
CR500 (retired)
CR5000 (retired)
CR510
CR6
CR800
CR850
CR9000 (retired)
CR9000X

Additional Compatibility Information

RF Considerations

External RF Sources

External RF sources can affect the probe’s operation. Therefore, the probe should be located away from significant sources of RF such as ac power lines and motors.

Interprobe Interference

Multiple CS655 probes can be installed within 4 inches of each other when using the standard data logger SDI-12 “M” command. The SDI-12 “M” command allows only one probe to be enabled at a time.

Optional Installation Tool

CS650G Rod Insertion Guide Tool

The CS650G makes inserting soil-water sensors easier in dense or rocky soils. This tool can be hammered into the soil with force that might damage the sensor if the CS650G was not used. It makes pilot holes into which the rods of the sensors can then be inserted.




Downloads

CS650 / CS655 Firmware v.2 (429 KB) 02-12-2015

Current CS650 and CS655 firmware. 

Note:  The Device Configuration Utility and A200 Sensor-to-PC Interface are required to upload the included firmware to the sensor.

View Revision History

Frequently Asked Questions

Number of FAQs related to CS655: 55

Expand AllCollapse All

  1. The volumetric water content reading is the average water content over the length of the sensor’s rods.

  2. A CS650 or CS655 can be ordered with an SDI-12 address option of -VS. With the -VS option, the SDI-12 address is set at the factory before the sensor is shipped. The last digit of the sensor’s serial number becomes that sensor’s SDI-12 address. Typically, the -VS option is chosen when there are multiple sensors that will communicate with the data logger on the same SDI-12 communications terminal. 

    If the -VS option is not selected when ordering, the CS650 or CS655 will ship with its SDI-12 address set to 0 (the default -DS option). The address can be changed to a non-zero value using the A200 Sensor to PC Interface or by connecting the sensor to an SDI-12 communications terminal and sending the aAb! Command as described in the “SDI-12 Sensor Support” appendix of the CS650/CS655 manual.

  3. The bulk electrical conductivity (EC) measurement is made along the sensor rods, and it is an average reading of EC over that distance at whatever depth the rods are placed.

  4. Probably not. The principle that makes these sensors work is that liquid water has a dielectric permittivity of close to 80, while soil solid particles have a dielectric permittivity of approximately 3 to 6. Because the permittivity of water is over an order of magnitude higher than that of soil solids, water content has a significant impact on the overall bulk dielectric permittivity of the soil. When the soil becomes very dry, that impact is minimized, and it becomes difficult for the sensor to detect small amounts of water. In air dry soil, there is residual water that does not respond to an electric field in the same way as it does when there is enough water to flow among soil pores. Residual water content can range from approximately 0.03 in coarse soils to approximately 0.25 in clay. In the natural environment, water contents below 0.05 indicate that the soil is as dry as it is likely to get. Very small changes in water content will likely cause a change in the sensor period average and permittivity readings, but, to interpret those changes, a very careful calibration using temperature compensation would need to be performed.  

  5. Both the CS650 and the CS655 can detect water as far away as 10 cm in wet sand. That distance decreases as the soil dries down to approximately 4 cm in dry sand. In practice, a depth of 5 cm will give a water content reading that is within the sensor accuracy specification even if a small amount of air near the soil surface is detected and averaged into the reading.

    Note: Campbell Scientific does not recommend installing the sensor in a depth shallower than 5 cm.

  6. Some customers have successfully used water content reflectometers, such as the CS650 and the CS655, to measure water content of wet concrete mix to ensure consistency between different batches of concrete. However, after concrete begins the curing process, salts are formed that make the electrical conductivity too high for the CS650 and the CS655 to operate. Thus, these sensors cannot be embedded in wet concrete to measure the water content of the concrete as it cures and dries.  

  7. Mine tailings are highly corrosive and have high electrical conductivity. Some customers have successfully used water content reflectometers, such as the CS650 or the CS655, to measure water content in mine tailings by coating the sensor rods with heat-shrink tubing. This affects the sensor output, and a soil-specific calibration must be performed. Care must be taken during installation to avoid damaging the heat-shrink tubing and exposing the sensor’s rods.  In addition, covering the sensor’s rods invalidates the bulk electrical conductivity reading. Unless the temperature reading provided by the CS650 or the CS655 is necessary, a better option may be to use a CS616 with coated rods.

  8. The CS650 and the CS655 are not ideal sensors for measuring water level. However, these sensors do respond to the abrupt change in permittivity at the air/water interface. A calibration could be performed to relate the period average or permittivity reading to the distance along the sensor rods where the air/water interface is located. From that, the water level can be determined. The permittivity of water is temperature dependent, so a temperature correction would be needed to acquire accurate results.  

  9. Period average and electrical conductivity readings were taken with several sensors in solutions of varying permittivity and varying electrical conductivity at constant temperature. Coefficients were determined for a best fit of the data. The equation is of the form

    Ka(σ,τ) = C032 + C122 + C2*σ*τ2 + C32 + C43*τ + C52*τ + C6*σ*τ + C7*τ + C83 + C92 + C10*σ + C11

    where Ka is apparent dielectric permittivity, σ is bulk electrical conductivity (dS/m), τ is period average (μS), and C1 to C11 are constants.

  10. No. The abrupt permittivity change at the interface of air and saturated soil causes a different period average response than would occur with the more gradual permittivity change found when the sensor rods are completely inserted in the soil. 

    For example, if a CS650 or a CS655 was inserted halfway into a saturated soil with a volumetric water content of 0.4, the sensor would provide a different period average and permittivity reading than if the probe was fully inserted into the same soil when it had a volumetric water content of 0.2.


Case Studies

China: Flux Cooperation
This case study discusses the integration of CPEC310 and AP200 systems to explore the theories......read more

Privacy Policy Update

We've updated our privacy policy.  Learn More